Linus Torvalds, the father of Linux, started to create a new operating system kernel as a personal project. That particular project from that time was growing continuously till date as Linux kernel. Linus Torvalds started the project in 1991, and he released the source code under a license prohibiting commercial distribution, under the GNU (General Public License). Linux had updated later to a vast scale to run servers, cloud computing, desktop, laptop, tabs, and mobile devices. History of Linux is very vast, and hereunder I am telling small detail about Linux.
When Linus Torvalds was a student of the University of Helsinki, he started a project that becomes Linux kernel later. He composed the program for the hardware he was using. Since he needed to utilize the elements of his new PC with an 80386 processor, development done on MINIX utilizing the GNU C Compiler. The GNU C Compiler is still the primary decision for compiling Linux today. It also can be worked with different compilers. Torvalds wrote in his “Just for Fun” book; he completed writing an operating system kernel. At age 21 (25 August 1991) he announced this framework in a Usenet presenting on the newsgroup “comp.os.minix.”. The announcement is given below as it’s:
“Hello everybody out there using minix –
I’m doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won’t be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since April and is starting to get ready. I’d like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things).
I’ve currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I’ll get something practical within a few months, and I’d like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won’t promise I’ll implement them :
Yes – it’s free of any Minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that’s all I have :-(.
— Linus Torvalds”
As per Torvalds, Linux picked up significantly in 1992 after the X Window System was ported to Linux by Orest Zborowski, which enabled Linux to help a GUI for the first time.
How the ‘Linux’ Name Comes
Linus Torvalds wanted to name his development work as ‘Freax,’ Freax is a combination of “free,” “monstrosity,” and “x” as an implication to Unix. At the beginning of his work on the project, he put away the documents under the name “Freax” for about a portion (around six months) of year.
Torvalds had considered the name “Linux,” however at first, he rejected it. The source code was transferred to the FTP server to encourage the development of Linux of FUNET in Sep ’91. The FTP server name was ftp.funet.fi . Ari Lemmke at Helsinki University of Technology was one of the volunteers of the FTP server that time. He didn’t feel that “Freax” was a perfect name. In this way, Ari Lemmke named the project “Linux” on the FTP server without counseling Torvalds. Later, Torvalds accepted the name as “Linux.”
Here how the word “Linux” should be pronounced (ˈliːnɵks).
GNU GPL License of Linux
Torvalds first distributed the Linux kernel under its license, which had a limitation on business or commercial activities. The first arrival of the Linux kernel was Linux 0.01, incorporated a binary of GNU’s Bash shell. On the “Notes for Linux release 0.01”, he lists the GNU software that is needed to run Linux. To run the system, you require a shell, compilers, and a library and so on. These are some independent parts and might be under copyright. Most of the instruments utilized with Linux are GNU software and are under the GNU copyleft.
In 1992, he proposed published the kernel under the GNU General Public License. He announced this decision in the release notes of 0.12. December 1992 he distributed revision 0.99 utilizing the license GNU GPL. Linux and GNU engineers attempted to coordinate GNU parts with Linux to make a completely functional and free working operating system.
Torvalds has expressed, “Making Linux GPL’d was the best thing I ever did.” Around 2000 Torvalds clarified that the license for the Linux portion is the GPLv2, without the normal “or later clause.
Torvalds declared in 1996 that there would be a mascot for Linux, the mascot is a penguin. This mascot was because of the reality when they were going to choose the mascot: Torvalds referenced – he was chewed by a little penguin on a visit to the National Zoo and Aquarium in Canberra, Australia. Larry Ewing gave the first draft of the present well-known mascot dependent on this description.
James Hughes proposed the name Tux as a subordinate of Torvalds’ Unix. Being short for the tuxedo, a kind of suit with shading like that of a penguin.
The Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. Its basic design principles are established in Unix from the 1970s to 1980s. The system uses the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, access to the peripherals, and file systems. Drivers of the device are either combined directly with the kernel or added as modules that are loaded when the system is running.
The GNU userland is a central part of most systems which are based on the Linux kernel. The toolchain is a comprehensive collection of program writing tools vital to Linux development. The project also develops a favorite CLI shell. The graphical interface for the user or GUI used by most Linux systems is built on top of an operation of the X Window System. Currently, the Linux community seeks to advance to way land as the new display server protocol in place of X11. Many other open-source software projects are contributing to Linux systems.
The main difference between Linux and many other modern operating systems is that the Linux kernel itself. All of the other components are free of cost and open-source software. Some of these software licenses are based on the standard of copyleft. All work adopt from a copyleft piece of software must be copyleft. The GNU or General Public License (GPL), is a format of copyleft and copyleft is used for the Linux kernel as well as many of the components from the GNU Project.
Linux distros are planned by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. Linux systems adhere to POSIX, SUS, LSB, ISO, and ANSI standards where possible.
Free software projects are developed through collaboration, are often produced independently of each other.
Many Linux distro, manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This connection allows users to adjust the operating system to their particular needs. All distros are maintained by individuals, teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial organizations. A distribution provides its default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, system security, and integration of the different software packages. Distributions generally use a package manager such as apt, yum, zypper, Pacman or portage to install, remove, and update all of a system’s software from one central location.
The Linux kernel is being used all over from mobile to supercomputer. It supports ARM-based iPAQ and IBM mainframes. The kernel supports Macintosh computers using both PowerPC and Intel processors, PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, etc. Several industry associations and hardware manufacturers decide to maintain and to improve support for hardware under Linux. Over time, support for different hardware has been enhanced in Linux. Nowadays, almost all computer hardware support Linux Operating System.
Linux OS Environments
Linux distros are designed for use on desktops and servers. Many distributions are specialized for different purposes: such as computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a region or language. So far four hundred distributions are actively developed for many reasons, and a dozen of them are most popular and widely used.
Over the year, Linux being popular on standard desktop and laptops. Most modern distributions are giving excellent graphical user environment. The two most popular environments are KDE Plasma Desktop and Xfce.
There is no single official Linux desktop available. All desktop environments and Linux distributions get components from a pool of free and open-source software. For example, GNOME has its human interface guidelines as a design guide. GNOME gives impotence on the human-machine interface. It’s not only doing the graphical design, but also considering people with disabilities, and even focusing on security.
As well as Desktop distributions, Linux also popular in the netbook market. Devices such as the Acer Aspire One and Asus Eee PC deliver with customized Linux installed.
Google distribute Chrome OS as a Linux-based operating system, with the Chrome browser as the main UI.
Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers
For a long time Linux distributions been used as server operating systems. Every eight of the ten web servers of reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux on their web servers.
Linux distros are the basis of the LAMP server-software combination. LAMP means Linux, Apache, MariaDB/MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python which are popular among developers.
Due to pricing and the open-source model, Linux distros become popular on mainframes also. IBM sells a significant number of mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server. IBM declares a series of mainframes designed to run with Linux. Name of the mainframe series is LinuxONE.
Nowadays Linux distributions are also leading as operating systems for supercomputers.
Many operating systems of smart devices, such as smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, and in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) systems are based on Linux. Most of the platforms for such devices are Android, Firefox OS, Mer, and Tizen.
Major Smartphone OS such as Firefox, Android is an operating system based on Linux. Android OS is the most popular mobile phone operating system for smartphones. Android OS is also a popular operating system for tablets, and Android smart TVs and Vehicle Infotainment Systems.
Canonical has released Ubuntu Touch, targeting to bring convergence to the user experience on this mobile operating system and touch input based desktop.
Linux is popular in embedded systems because of its low cost and ease of customization. In the non-mobile telecommunications equipment sector and CPE hardware runs with a Linux-based operating system.
For example – the most popular ‘TiVo digital video recorder’ using a customized Linux based OS. Many network firewalls and routers from makers as Cisco/Linksys use Linux based system. Roland RD-700GX digital piano also runs Linux. The ‘WholeHogIII console stage lighting control’ systems using Linux.
Previously many games were not available for Linux, but nowadays, more games have been released with support for Linux. Linux based popular mobile platform Android has gained much developer interest and is one of the leading platforms for mobile game development.
Valve released a Linux version of Steam, especially for the gaming. Its a popular game distribution platform on PC. SteamOS is a gaming oriented OS based on Debian, for beta testing, and has plans to ship Steam Machines as a gaming and entertainment platform. Nvidia also released Shield as a specialized gaming platform.
Many Linux users play Windows games through Wine or CrossOver Linux.
However, the biggest piece of the work on Linux is performed by the community who love Linux from there deep of the heart. Many developers around the world using Linux and send their recommended enhancements, error fix or any kind of update to the maintainers. Different organizations have likewise helped with the advancement of the kernels, and other required software, which is distributed with Linux. As of February 2015, over 80% of Linux engineers worldwide are paid.
Linux is released both by an organized project like Debian, project connected with companies as Fedora, OpenSUSE, Ubuntu and so on. The members from the particular projects meet at different gatherings and fairs, to exchange thoughts. As because it’s rapid development, localization and usefulness, its user also growing rapidly.